Map of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms and Danish Districts, circa 10th century.

In the 11th century, the territorial, political, and social coherence of England as we know it today barely existed. By the 10th century, the dominant peoples were the Angles and the Saxons. The 11th century began with Danish invasions and occupations and ended with the Norman invasion and occupation.

In my Turnabout Books, I refer to the people of England as English, although the land was home to Saxons, Angles, Danes, Welsh, and others who maintained their regional identities, such as the Northumbrians and Mercians. Likewise, I use the term “Norman,” although the invaders and occupiers included people from Brittany, Flanders, and elsewhere.

The English language differed greatly by region. I label most local dialects as Saxon, and the Norman French as French, though it barely resembled that spoken by the Franks. Although historically inaccurate, I use the thirteenth-century spelling of Englelond, which by 1205 referred collectively to the people and the land inclusive of all occupiers.